On-Line Water Quality Measuring Stations are designed and used for detection of chemical and physical parameters of Ground- and Surface Waters. ENVIRTEC.wqms en office@envirtec.info On-Line Water Quantity Measuring Stations are designed and used for the detection of the Water Level and the discharge of Surface Waters or also the Water Level of Ground Waters. Overview of all project areas and  places of work via Google Maps. Contact:   Telefon Austria:  +43 699 12 47 65 64 Telefon Indonesia: +6285642694822 E-Mail:     office@envirtec.info Water Quality  & Water Quality Monitoring Stations WQMS   The development in microelectronics and the surface design of plastics have lead to the use of Ion Selective Electrodes in the last decade. Nevertheless are chemical analyses with photometric detection in the field of environmental analytics still state of the art. The differences between facilities for the measurement of industrial waste water in factories and facilities for the continuous detection of parameters in ground- and surface waters is not only the measuring range and the assortment of the analysers. It is also a matter of autonomic power supply and the possibilities of the data transfer as well as facility protection against vandalism and theft. Meanwhile there is a huge amount of on-line parameters and analysers available. The left table gives an overview of some standard analysers / parameters which allows a good general evaluation of the type of human impacts on waters. Depending on the monitoring aim the table of parameters must be adjusted. Also must the measuring method be adjusted to the expected concentration of the measured parameter. In general optical methods will provide more accurate results than physical. On the other hand can some parameters only be detected with physical methods. Physical Standard Parameters, Elektrodes: Beside the Temperature, the Conductivity and the pH- Value it is sometimes useful to measure the Redox-Potential. The chemical parameter “dissolved oxygen” is also mostly detected by electrodes with special membranes. Nearly daily the producers are creating new ion selective surfaces for detection of more and more parameters. The advantage  of electrodes is the most simply handling and the economic production. One of the disadvantages of electrodes can be “clocking”, where the sensitive surfaces are blocked by bacteria.           The biological material will for example reduce the amount of the substance (e.g. Oxygen) or will disturb the substance while docking on the detection surface. There is no or nearly no influence of biological materials for the parameters conductivity and temperature. Fluorescence photometric: The fluorescence photometric enables the detection of aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH / BTEX), which are compounds of crude oil products, the detection of Chlorophyll A and Cyano compounds, and of algae in very low concentration (ppB). The detection in ppb- range is possible because of the spatial arrangement of the photo- detector in an angel of 90° to the emitter. (Graphic from the OM manual of Turner designs). Fluorescence occurs when the outer electrons of a substance are lifted to a higher position by light- energy with special (shorter) wavelength and it will emit light with a (longer) wavelength when the electrons are falling back to the normal position. By choosing the filter wavelength the limitation for different parameters can be set. Photometry: The Photometry generally describes the detection of different parameters by light. Usually after adding of chemicals the detectable parameter (e.g. nutrients) is forming a coloured complex compound. The higher the concentration of the parameter, the less light of a specific wavelength is detected by the detector. The from Systea Company designed and developed On-Line Analysers have the big advantage that they are able to measure and detect accurate trough a wide range of concentrations because of an automatic dilution cycle. Without this dilution (1:10) the accuracy will diminish in the upper measuring range because of blocking the light-beam by coloured particles.  Beside this, photometry is also used for detection of turbidity and the absorption coefficient by 254 nm wavelength.     Biomonitoring: Biomonitoring is not used to detect a specific parameter, but it is used to monitor the water quality in general for hazardous substances. For that purpose, living organisms from bacteria up to fishes are used. They are exposed to a flow trough sample water and they will react if some hazardous substances are in it. Luminous bacteria will change there light intensity, water fleas and fishes will change there swimming behaviour, mussels will close there valves in case of bad water conditions. Refrigerated water samples will be analysed if some alarms occur.     Parameters Following are the most practicable environmental parameters for the detection of influences on surface waters listed. In dependence of the aim of the project the list may be must be adjusted. Explanation: Listed are the parameters, the method and also the measuring range of different analysers and producers. Each parameter is linked with the producers information. ISE: Ion selective Electrode NE: usual Electrode OS: optical Sensor OCA: photometric Analyser OFA: Fluorescence analyser AA: Others Ammonia ISE 0,1-100 mg/l Ammonia OCA 0-400 µg/l Ammonia ISE 0,02-20 mg/l Chlorophyll A OS 0-300 µg/l Chlorophyll A OFA 0-200 µg/l Cyanide OCA 0-200 µg/l DOC OS 1-500 mg/l DOC OS 0-150 mg/l Oil in Water OFA 0-1000 µg/l Conductivity NE 100-1500 µS Nitrate ISE 0,1-100 mg/l Nitrate OCA 0-150 mg/l Nitrate OCA 0-70 mg/l Nitrite OCA 5-1200 µg/l Nitrite OCA 0-150 µg/l O2 NE 0-60 mg/l Ortho-Phosphate OCA 10-3000 µg/l Ortho-Phosphate OCA 0-200 µg/l pH-Value NE 0-14 SAK 254nm OS 0,1-600 1/m SAK 254nm OCA 0-500 1/m Turbidity OS 0-4000 FNU Turbidity OCA 0-3000 FNU Biomonitoring AA Mussels AUSTRIA ALBANIA  2008 & 2009 INDIA  2009 INDONESIA  2000 - 2004 PAKISTAN  2007 Environmental Engineering & Techniques Impressum